outspring has been an issue of discussion for a long time.
and supported from a certain amount of anthropological findings, are the
theory of the Incas to be decendants of a rather poor and non-high
cultural tribespeople from the areas around Titicaca and from todays
Puno and west towards Cuzco.
They appears like a people without any real importance considering the higher pre-Inca cultures of the time.
think that from the early 1200 AC, they started expanding territory and
began to rule both in and around the Cuzco.
This is however one theory,
and in my opinion all Inca history is walking on a very thin ice of
presumptions, due to the myths and facts always changing and almost
ghosting around anyone trying to get the reality out of the hundreds of
tails and myths all over the high Sierras in the Andes.
A few, if any
culture ever has been so difficult to get an hold of, like the Incas
Another theory is that the Incas came from the high land
surrounding Cuzco, but the local myths tells that they came from the
islands of Titicaca, more like the first version mentioned above.
the theory of the Incas coming from Machu Picchu, like Bingham presumed,
is not very dependable, because one presume that Machu Picchu was build
in a later Inca period of time.
There are numberless versions crossing
into each other all over the Andes area, and nobody can really be sure
in anything, most due to the fact that the time...that is the events and
years they should have happened never are trustworthy.
We cant follow
the line of Inca rulers and be sure it is real persons, especially the
first Incas who seems to be legends more than real people.
stepped into the historic area around the year 1200 A.C.
already a lot of pre-Inca cultures was solid founded and developed in
the areas which would become the great Inca empire.
One can say that the
Incas came to rule over a fully dished table of culture goods already
existent and in order.
The Incas started to develop further and expanded
the area of their believes, based on these pre-Inca cultural
civilizations which they eventually became the rulers over.
adopted and formed the different cultures into a main path that all lead
to the worship of the Sons of God: The Sun, The Inca himself and his
earthly temples and priesthood.
All the tribes concurred had to
do dutywork (mitas).
This meant that public construction work, often of
enormous dimensions, could be done.
One of the most important
constructions was roads, but also buildings, temples, and watering
Above all the systematic road construction meant an effective
administration of the empire, securing the unity and contact with and
between the different areas, from the last outpost to the more stabile
and populated cities.
The taxes was very tough but the Incas did
however not take the goods for only themselves.
All over the empire it
was build public storehouses were crop and life goods were stored,
securing against all kinds of hunger and bad crops or bad years in the
Also people who didnt have anything was given supply from these
storehouses. The storehouses was controlled locally by the state
officials.(The Spanish plundered and finished these storehouses in a
short time, causing hunger, poverty and suffering all over the empire.)
Inca warriors was recruited by offers of plundering, promises to be
given new and better land to live on, and other goods connected to the
duty of being the Incas servants.
The organization of military was very
systematic. Each "platoon" was divided into groups of ten, hundred and a
The main force was very skilled and trained, an
absolutely capable defence ablility, and a fearsome striking power.
these days there has been a misunderstanding that also the civil
population were divided into groups after the ten decimal system, but
this seem to be the result of early Spanish History writers and their
The Incas claimed to be the sons of the sun, and
divine decendants of the sungod.
They introduced this religion all over
the Inca empire, and the consequences was that most part of the public
and administrative organs were identical all over the Inca territories.
the Incas concurred a tribe or city, they destroyed the local gods and
their temples, to avoid any resistance.
But, in some cases they
preferred to stay friends with gods that were so strong and great that
even the Incas let them be...adopting them , their temples and priests
into the long path of holy places and customs which the Incas had
Then the people could continue to seek advice and
support from these sources in difficult and important questions, but
this time under the Incas rulership.
Even if the local chiefs
and administrations could keep their powers to some extent in the
traditional ways, the religious and most of the important administrative
fields was identical enforced all over by the Incas. One can say it was
an imperialistic legislature.
The Incas had the highest juristic
rights, and functioned like judge legistrators in important matters.
local chief could still be in some power, but the Incas vice-regents
(Churucos) had the final word and control over the general
To make this function properly , it was demanded that
all persons in mayor administrations had to speak the official language
The system of roads built by the Incas was, with its
restingstations, proviantstoring for the messengers, and the messenger
system, built to function like a relayrace, as systematic as anyone can
imagine. The Incas didnt have any written language as we know about,
and used a system of tied knots called "Quipu".
This way one could
count, measure and hold order in different important areas of state
administration of goods, labor and more.
The Inca could control the use
of resources out in his provinces and make restrictions if necessary.
Corruption and unfaithful servants was a problem, but if it was
discovered , the penalty was death.